Snake extract–laden hemostatic bioadhesive gel cross-linked
Bioadhesives reduce operation time and surgical complications. However, in the presence of blood, adhesion strength is often compromised. Inspired by the blood clotting activity of snake venom, we report a visible light–induced blood-resistant hemostatic adhesive (HAD) containing gelatin methacryloyl and reptilase, which is a hemocoagulase (HC) extracted from Bothrops atrox. HAD leads to the activation and aggregation of platelets and efficiently transforms fibrinogen into fibrin to achieve rapid hemostasis and seal the tissue. Blood clotting time with HAD was about 45 s compared with 5 to 6 min without HAD. HAD instantaneously achieved hemostasis on liver incision (~45 s) and cut rat tail (~34 s) and reduced blood loss by 79 and 78%, respectively. HAD is also efficient in sealing severely injured liver and abdominal aorta. HAD has great potential to bridge injured tissues by combing hemostasis with adhesives.To get more news about Hemostatic Gauze, you can visit rusunmedical.com official website.
There has been considerable interest in bioadhesives for tissue repair and sealing (1–5). Compared with sutures, tissue adhesives reduce operation time and alleviate surgical complications (6–8). Bioadhesives can be categorized into two classes: (i) synthetic adhesives, such as cyanoacrylates and polyethylene glycol–based adhesives; and (ii) naturally derived adhesives based on fibrin, polysaccharides, albumin, and gelatin (9). Synthetic adhesives can be optimized to the desired properties, but there are concerns about their biocompatibility and toxicity. For example, cyanoacrylates, once initiated by water, will undergo rapid polymerization to form a bonding network with the tissue surface to achieve a rapid and strong adhesive interface. However, potential toxicity limits their use because the degradation of cyanoacrylates would release histotoxic components (cyanoacetate and formaldehyde) and causes inflammatory responses (10, 11).
Natural bioadhesives have excellent biocompatibility, but they often have low mechanical integrity and adhesion. Prepared from a number of components produced from pooled human plasma, fibrin glue has excellent properties such as supporting cell growth and biocompatibility, but its poor mechanical strength is still a limitation (7). Typically, the bioadhesion between adhesives and tissues is accomplished via chemical bonds (covalent bonds and ionic bonds) or physical interactions (including hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, metal complexation, and π-π stacking). Bioinspired adhesive architectures are also designed by simulating animals such as gecko lizards, beetles, endoparasites, octopi, and slugs. For example, a tissue adhesive in the form of dry double-sided tape that can form a tough and strong adhesive in seconds by removing interfacial water from the surface, followed by covalent cross-linking with tissue is reported (2).
A photocrosslinked biodegradable elastomer having immobilized type I collagen enhanced in vitro cellular attachment and proliferation (12). A bioinspired adhesive by electrostatic interactions, covalent bonds, and physical interpenetration and amplified energy dissipation achieved tough adhering to the substrate (1). Although progress has been made toward improved bioadhesives, bonding failure at the tissue interface during bleeding is detrimental because bleeding weakens the adhesive interaction with adjacent tissues (13–15). Bleeding due to injury, trauma, and surgical procedures is a primary issue leading to morbidities and mortality (16–18). Compressible hemorrhage happens in accessible sites such as the extremities, where physical pressure or stress can be applied to alleviate severe bleeding scenarios. In general, death from compressible hemorrhage can be avoidable by rapid hemostasis. However, a noncompressible hemorrhage is found in nonaccessible sites where surgical intervention is needed for hemostasis. Noncompressive hemorrhage is the main cause of death on battlefields and in civilian traumatic injuries (19). Therefore, wound closure and hemostasis become a key bioadhesive design goal to avoid blood leakage to maintain adhesive strength and save lives (20, 21).