In Malaysia the process of defining features used by BERNAS are divided into four main stages that determine the quality of rice. In determining the quality of rice, the rice composition, the milling quality, its defectives and moisture content play the main role. rice grader machine composition consists of five features or criteria (kernel, head rice, big broken, small broken and brewer/chip). Based on interview with domain experts and content analysis of the Padi and Rice act, seventeen features have been identified. Comparison and analysis have been made between determinants from these two resources. These determinants were compared. Redundancies were removed to get the final twenty one attributes to be used in the proposed model.
All freshly puffed rice samples were subjected to sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel numbering 28. A score card was designed specifically to test the quality attributes of sample using a grading scale of 1–10 which represented qualities of poor, fair, satisfactory, good, and excellent. Water was allowed in between samples to wash down the previous samples. The sensory attributes tested were appearance, color, size, shape, texture, crispiness, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability.
There were non-significant differences in the proportions of head rice across the different income groups and between the two towns, with respondents having submitted samples with 57% head rice, on average. Based on the proportion of head rice in the respondents' samples, it appears that the respondents were willing to pay for milled rice that fell below premium standards set by the Philippines' National Food Authority (NFA); perhaps, premium grade milled rice was not available in the markets surveyed in this study. However, the data reported here indicate improvement from previously reported rice mill yields in the Philippines, suggesting that post-harvest processing conditions and processing facilities have improved. The motivation of breeders and post-harvest practitioners to improve head rice recovery could stem from consumers' possible association between good taste and the wholeness of the rice grain. It is possible that the respondents' choices of rice were constrained by their purchasing power as head rice has been reported to be correlated with market rice prices.
The flow rate of brown rice was controlled at one-half of the hopper gate opening (based on machine characteristics) which showed stable conditions (less breakage and overmilling) during operations and was maintained constantly throughout the experiments. The rice whitener machine when operated at full hopper gate opening resulted in rather high breakage and overmilling which made it very difficult to clarify the effect of screens and the angles of slit.
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