paddy cleaner specially developed to meet the requirement of raw and boiled rice mills. This is used for pre cleaning of paddy. Before milling, rice grains must be dried in order to decrease the moisture content to between 18-22%. This is done with artificially heated air or, more often, with the help of naturally occurring sunshine. Rice grains are left on racks in fields to dry out naturally. Once dried, the rice grain, now called rough rice, is ready for processing.
At the processing plant, the rice is cleaned and hulled. At this point, brown rice needs no further processing. If white rice is desired, the brown rice is milled to remove the outer bran layers.
Wide variety of technologies has been evolved for efficient use of energy for various equipments of rice mills, so far, only a few have improved their energy efficiency levels. Most of the rice mills use old and locally available technologies and are also completely dependent on locally available technical personnel.
A valuable structure highly recommended by FAO for small and medium rice farmers is the rubber roller husker. The rubber roller husker can play an important part in the fight for food security and against hunger in developing countries. Its effectiveness for safe storage has been proven since the 1980s. The technology was introduced as part of the Swiss cooperation for development in Central America, since when more than 230 000 small metallic silos with a capacity of between 0.5 and 2 tonnes have been introduced to prevent food loss. It has been estimated that more than 2 million people currently benefit from this technology in Central America.